History of the Focke-Wulf Fw 190 (Dora)

The original single-seat, single-engine Focke-Wulf Fw 190 fighter was one of the two most important German front-line fighters during World War II (1939-1945) - The other became the Messerschmitt Bf 109 (detailed elsewhere on this page). Both excelled in their abilities and achieved their own wartime glory in the air.

The original form of the Fw 190 first flew in June 1939, launched in August 1939, and by the end of the war, more than 20,000 copies of all types related to the original would be produced - as with the classic Supermarine 'Spitfire', North American The P-51 'Mustang' and others were among the five best fighters of the entire war. The related Fw Ta 152, the proboscis branch of the post-war Fw 190 series, was developed as a dedicated high-altitude interceptor - but the series' production was considerably limited by wartime standards, which had little effect on its outcome.

The Fw 190 has a long range and has evolved over the years as the war went on. Over time, the Luftwaffe was desperate for better fighter jets to operate at higher operational altitudes, a move that led to a series of experiments: the turbocharged, BMW801 powered "Fw 190B" and the turbocharged, DB603 equipped with " FW190C". The ultimate goal was to counter the constant threat of high-altitude Allied heavy bombers, which appeared over German soil with surprising regularity by the end of 1944.

While the Ta 152 was developed for the same purpose, the Fw 190D variant will be used as a temporary solution until more advanced aircraft arrive.

All of this led to a more explicit form of the Focke-Wulf Jager product and became the "Fw 190D" (known as "Dora" and "Long-Nose-Dora"), replacing earlier developments. The newcomer is powered by a liquid-cooled 12-cylinder inverted V Junkers Jumo 213 series supercharged engine, unlike the radial engines in the series. Due to the longer engines in the game, the nose section of the D model has been lengthened to move the aircraft's center of gravity (CoG) forward. As a result, the rear wing was lengthened to compensate for the change.

All in all, the fuselage adds nearly 5 feet to the new aircraft, while retaining many aspects of the original Fw 190A, including the center single-seat cockpit and wing main aircraft. However, the new engine required an overhaul of the internal structure and also required a pressurized cockpit to meet the high operating altitudes expected for the new aircraft.

The Junkers Jumo 213A delivers an impressive 1,750 hp, which can be called upon via the MW50 Emergency War Power (EWP) injection system for a total output of 2,100 hp, producing a brief extra power. The MW50 feature wasn't added until later in the aircraft's lifespan, as earlier models lacked this feature, making the Dora unpopular among experienced pilots converting to this type - low-altitude performance was greatly reduced.

In any case, the Fw 190's top speed is now increased from 405 mph to over 425 mph.

The end result is a faster shooting platform that can overtake and dive contemporaries, steer faster, and benefit from the Fw 190's proven handling characteristics, while losing its excellent roll speed.

The basic Dora entry weapon consists of 2 x 13mm MG131 machine guns in the fairing and 2 x 20mm MG151/20E automatic cannons in the wing roots, one cannon per wing root. All cannons are fired synchronously via rotating propeller blades and can be opened or closed in pairs to save ammunition. This gave the fighter a good "strike" against Allied air and ground targets.

The machine guns can accept up to 400 rounds of 13mm ammunition each, while the machine guns can accept 250 rounds of ammunition each. The fuselage can also carry an optional 1,102 lb SC500 conventionally delivered bomb on the fuselage centerline.

Dora went to war under the flag of Geschwader 3/JG in September 1944. 54 and surpassed the Fw 190A model in service at the time. Early uses of this type included fighter cover for Messerschmitt Me 262 jet fighters, especially during their takeoff and landing operations, the sluggish jets that proved most vulnerable to Allied airstrikes. However, despite its high-altitude mission, the Fw 190D was increasingly used for low- and mid-level anti-fighter and ground attack missions, which became increasingly important to the Luftwaffe as the war began in 1945. It did so, proving a formidable adversary to the P-51D and the Spitfire Mk.

XIV products that pierced the postwar skies for the Allies.

Focke-Wulf Fw 190 (Dora) Specification

BASICS

Service Year

1944

Origin

Nazi Germany

Status

RETIRED

Not in Service.

Crew

1

Production

1,827

MANUFACTURER(S)

Focke-Wulf - Nazi Germany

OPERATORS

Nazi Germany (retired)

ROLES

Air-to-Air Combat, Fighter

The general ability to actively attack other aircraft of similar form and function, usually using guns, missiles and/or airborne missiles.

X-Plane (development, prototype, tech demo)

Aircraft designed for prototyping, technology demonstration, or research/data collection.

Notable Features

Strong Aircraft Frame

The inherent ability of the airframe to take significant damage.

High-speed performance

Can accelerate to higher speeds than the average aircraft at the time.

High performance

The ability to fly and operate at higher altitudes than the average aircraft of the day.

Rating Process

A manual process to allow the pilot and/or crew to exit in the event of an onboard emergency.

ENCLOSED CREWSPACE(S)

Features partially- or wholly-enclosed crew workspaces.

RETRACTABLE UNDERCARRIAGE

Features retracting / retractable undercarriage to preserve aerodynamic efficiency.

DIMENSIONS & WEIGHTS

Length

33. 5 ft

(10. 20 m)

Width/Span

34. 4 ft

(10. 50 m)

Height

11. 0 ft

(3. 35 m)

Empty Wgt

7,716 lb

(3,500 kg)

MTOW

10,670 lb

(4,840 kg)

Wgt Diff

+2,954 lb

(+1,340 kg)

MAINPLANE STRUCTURE

monoplane / low-mounted / straight

Monoplane

Design utilizes a single primary wing mainplane; this represent the most popular mainplane arrangement.

Low-Mounted

Mainplanes are low-mounted along the sides of the fuselage.

Straight

The planform involves use of basic, straight mainplane members.

POWER & PERFORMANCE

Installed:

1 x Junkers Jumo 213A-1 liquid-cooled, inverted-Vee engine developing 1,776 horsepower (2,022 with MW50 injection) driving a three-bladed propeller unit at the nose.

Max Speed

426 mph

(685 kph | 370 kts)

Ceiling

39,370 ft

(12,000 m | 7 mi)

Range

519 mi

(835 km | 1,546 nm)

Rate-of-Climb

3,300 ft/min

(1,006 m/min)

RANGES (MPH) Subsonic: < 614mph | Transonic: 614-921 | Supersonic: 921-3836 | Hypersonic: 3836-7673 | Hi-Hypersonic: 7673-19180 | Reentry: > 19030

ARMAMENT

Fw 190D-9:2 x 20mm MG151 automatic cannons in the wing roots. 2 x 13mm MG131 heavy machine guns in the engine cowling. OPTIONAL:1 x 1,102lb SC500 conventional drop bomb under fuselage centerline.

VARIANTS

Fw 190D ('Dora') - Base series name. Fw 190D-9 - Final production model late 1944; Junkers Jumo 213A-1 engine, 1,776 hp; 2 x 13 mm MG and 2 x 20 mm cannon armament. Fw 190D-10 - Proposed topshell model with 2 x 20mm wing cannons and 2 x 30mm outboard cannons. Fw 190D-11 - Junkers Jumo 213F engine; 2 x 20mm Wingroot guns and 2 x 30mm guns for outer wing sections; can make up to 17 copies. Fw 190D-12 - Prototype with a 30mm gun mounted on a hub.

Fw 190D-13 - Hub-mounted 20mm gun and 2 x 20mm Wingroot guns; 2 prototypes in stock Fw 190A-8; hydraulically assisted ailerons; no mass production. Fw 190D-14 - Based on D-12; late 1944 model; Fw 190D extended fuselage DB603 radial engine; cancelled January 1945.

Fw 190D-15 - January 1945 model; based on Fw 190A-8/A-9; DB603 engine; extended tail section.

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