The 9M76/9K76 TR-1 "Temp" was an all-wheeled mobile nuclear ballistic missile-launching vehicle of the Soviet Union during the Cold War period (1947-1991). The type was drawn up to satisfy a battlefield need for ground commanders to have a flexible nuclear-minded solution should the Cold War ever have "gone hot" in Europe. The system, serving actively between 1969 and 1989, was designed by the engineers of Nadiradze OKB and manufactured at the Votkinsk Machine Building Plant.
The TR-1 Temp was designated as SS-12 "Scaleboard" in the West by NATO. The "SS-22" was mistakenly assigned to what was believed to be a new mobile nuclear missile carrier by the organization until revealed that a new variant of the same series was in fact introduced by the Soviets.
As with other all-in-one battlefield missile-launching systems, the TR-1 mates two major components into a single solution - the wheeled carrier vehicle and the missile component. The complete system, therefore, involves the MAZ-543 heavy-duty, 8x8 wheeled military truck with the base SS-12 or longer-ranged SS-22 missile. This vehicle - known as the "Urugan" ("Hurricane") - has been / is currently used for other notable missile-launching systems such as the SS-1 "SCUD" but its versatility goes beyond the military sphere as the vehicle served / serves as the framework for firefighting and other civilian industry types.
The chassis has also proven serviceable as host-vehicle for Multiple-Launch, Rocket System (MLRS) types in the Soviet and modern day Russian armies as the MAX-543M serving the BM-30 "Smerch" series and the MAZ-7910 used for the air-defense-minded S-300PMU-2 (S-300) missile complex.
The wheeled nature of the host vehicle / carrier meant that the SS-12 could be mobilized to reach nearly any location - paved or off-road - limited somewhat by its sheer size, weight, and wide turning radius. Once there, it could fire its war load and relocate for resupply or retreat, making it a difficult weapon to pinpoint and neutralize.
The missile component of the SS-12 system featured a 500 kiloton nuclear warhead with a 3-foot diameter and 41-foot overall length. Weight of the complete missile reached 21,400lb and the projectile was driven by a single-stage, liquid-propellant motor, guided to the target area through an inertial guidance system out to ranges of 560 miles maximum (SS-22) with accuracy falling within half-a-mile.
Unlike other Soviet products during this period, the TR-1 system was not exported to direct allies and satellite states. It was, however, fielded in near-West countries like East Germany to serve as a deterrent to invasion - giving the weapon range against major European population centers for its time.
With the end of the Cold War in the late-1980s / early-1990s - and the subsequent thawing of relations between East and West, meant that use of the TR-1 system was naturally given up.
Not in Service.
Votkinsk Machine Building Plant - Soviet Union
Special purpose design developed to accomplish an equally-special battlefield role or roles.
Wheeled arrangement gives this system an inherent road-running capability, enhancing mobility.
Design includes such features as a track-link system or high ground clearance to better traverse offroad.
Crew is provided (either as standard or optional) protection against Nuclear-Biological-Chemical agents for enhanced survivability in contaminated zones.
In-Direct Fire Capable
This system's capability is such that it can engage targets / target areas without Line-of-Sight attained.
Ability to provide lethal, in-direct firepower at range for area saturation; can include nuclear, biological, and chemical agents.
41. 0 ft
12. 5 m
49. 6 tons
1 x Diesel-fueled engine driving conventional 8x8 all-wheeled arrangement.
46. 6 mph
(75. 0 kph)
497. 1 mi
(800. 0 km)
1 x SS-12 (500-mile) OR SS-22 (560-mile) nuclear-tipped battlefield ballistic missile.
Single-shot, reload dependent.