Mikoyan The MiG-27 "Flogger" was derived from the successful MiG-23 "Flogger" interceptor and made into a dedicated ground attack aircraft. The original Flogger's swing-wing capability was ideal for low-altitude activities and the short takeoffs and landings inherent in close support roles. However, before the MiG-27 outnumbered the MiG-23, it outnumbered other capable Soviet systems such as the MiG-23 fighter-bomber version and the adaptable Sukhoi Su-25 "Frogfoot" ")Role.
As a result, production was cut and the list of operators was limited to some Warsaw Pact countries and some Third World allies. Of note is the licensed manufacture/production of the MiG-27 by HAL in India.
Mikoyan-Gurevich company earlier used the MiG-27 designation in an attempt to meet another Soviet requirement for a dedicated low-altitude close support aircraft. Although the aircraft later became the Sukhoi Su-25 "Frogfoot", the MiG-27 designation reappeared in a special ground attack version of the MiG-23 interceptor.
The MiG-27 retains the same NATO codename "Flogger" as the MiG-23.
The development of the Flogger fighter has always included provisions to make it a special Strike version. The original MiG-23 was essentially an interceptor designed for straight-line speed, designed for air combat with ground attack as a secondary (albeit limited) role. The MiG-23 entered service in the early 1970s, replacing the aging MiG-21 "fish bed" in its air defense role.
The MiG-21, while fast and capable, has a short range and limited ammo capacity. The arrival of the MiG-23 helped with this.
Although the MiG-23 was converted into an improved version of the fighter-bomber, it still retained many of its "fighter" origins and was more of an intermediate design than a vision of the Soviet authorities. However, the plane is cheap to build, robust, reliable, and - with some modifications - adaptable to more specific roles.
The result was the MiG-23BM "Experimental", which eventually became the MiG-27 "Flogger".
The new MiG-27 proved to be a promising proposal, as the model was put into production directly from the drawing board. The first flight took place in 1972. The first available examples were shipped to the Soviet Air Force Group stationed in Germany as a show of force against NATO forces there.
The MiG-27 retains many of the exterior features of the previous MiG-23. The most striking part is the redesigned nose cone. As a low-altitude strike fighter, the MiG-27 requires little or no advanced air-to-air radar in interceptors.
The new radar-free nose assembly looks sleeker and improves visibility down the cockpit. The cockpit itself received a new canopy with less frame and a raised pilot seat position. The windshield is armored, as are the cockpit walls, to match the low-level role of the new Flayer.
The engine is a simplified version of the Interceptor brand, housed in a modified rear fuselage with two-stage afterburner nozzles. There is also a hanging point under the fuselage.
Wings are still the "bread and butter" for the new lashers. Three wing pivot positions can be recalled during flight to aid in three different flight modes. The fully extended wing sweep provides good low altitude/low speed control during takeoff and landing as it introduces more drag and produces increased lift. The average wing sweep mode is the balance setting used in normal cruise conditions. Extreme wing sweep is used in high performance roles as it promotes a smaller front surface profile and less drag to achieve and maintain top straight-line speeds above Mach 1. The wings are mounted high along the upper part of the fuselage, extending from fixed-wing "gloves" that extend from the upper part of the fuselage.
The upper part of the fuselage also houses the heavy and complex mechanisms needed to control the movement of the wings.
Unlike previous Mikoyan-Gurevich designs, the MiG-27 features side-mounted rectangular air intakes to accommodate the nose cone at the front. The air intakes connect and power a single Soyuz engine located in the center of the fuselage. A raised fuselage spine blocks most of the critical rearward view outside the cockpit, creating a tapered, swept vertical tail.
The vertical caudal fin is also balanced with momentum by the ventral caudal fin. The horizontal stabilizer was mounted high and flared to either side of the jet pipes.
Only two main variants of the MiG-27 were produced, including under the NATO codenames "Flogger-D" and "Flogger-J", although each had its own notable sub-variants.
MiG-27 is the base designation for the "Vanilla" production model and features an improved canopy (no central vertical frame, improving cockpit visibility and simplifying the ejection process). Ball fairings on the wing gloves were fitted with special electro-optical and radio equipment, and the original twin-barreled 23mm MiG-23 cannon was replaced with a six-barrel GSh-6-23M 23mm Gatling cannon.
The MiG-27D is a dedicated nuclear attack derivative, on standby to prevent a perceived nuclear air strike (at the time the Americans developed their long-range, swing-wing, nuclear-capable General Dynamics FB-111 Aardvark bomber ). These whips are equipped with the RSBN-6S Navigation Attack System to accomplish the task at hand. Production began in 1973 and continued until 1977, when a total of around 560 examples were produced.
MiG-27 and MiG-27D belong to NATO codename "Flogger-D".
The MiG-27M is an upgraded version of the Flogger-D line. The electro-optical and radio frequency heads of the original model have been removed, and the laser ranging window of the machine head has been enlarged. The type initially retained the GSh-6-23M Gatling gun, but later gave way to the more powerful 30mm caliber GSh-6-30 Gatling gun.
The Electronic Countermeasures (ECM) suite has been updated to address new ground threats and a new PrNK-23K navigation/attack system has been introduced. The new kit allows for more automation to reduce pilot responsibility and fatigue.
These new upgrades resulted in the production of a total of 150 aircraft, built between 1978 and 1983. Sri Lanka discovered the lashers through Ukraine and used them against members of the Tamil Tigers.
MiG-27K became the last Soviet-Russian series of ground attack firecrackers. It features an integrated Fone-branded laser pointer and can now be used in conjunction with the new TV-guided ordnance. The navigation attack system revolves around the PrNK-23K.
Like the MiG-27M before it, the MiG-27K upgrades its earlier 23mm Gatling cannon to a more powerful and capable 30mm system, and the entire weapon suite has been revised and tuned to improve weapon selection and delivery convenience. The new Flayer can operate day, night and in severe weather, proving to be an accurate bombing platform.
The Radar Warning Receiver (RWR) and its applicable electronic countermeasures suite have been enhanced to automatically respond to incoming threats. About 200,000 models were eventually produced. The Fone laser rangefinder has finally given way to the updated Klen-branded system.
The MiG-27K is powered by a Khatchaturov R-29-300 afterburner turbojet capable of 18,300 lbf in standard thrust and 27,600 lbf in afterburner. The top speed recorded at 26,000 feet is about Mach 1.77. Ferry range is limited to 1,550 miles, while service is capped at 45,900 feet.
The climb rate is 39,400 feet per minute.
MiG-27 was developed to export model on MiG-27L. India was a major customer for Mikoyan and the Soviet government to ship parts of the plane to the South Asian country for domestic production. The MiG-27L is based on the MiG-27M, differing only in a modified IRST (Infrared Search and Track) housing under the nose.
HAL in India was responsible for building about 130 copies.
India was also the recipient of a domestic upgrade program to produce the improved MiG-27H in 1988. The MiG-27L was used in the upgrade program and was equipped with French avionics. The aircraft works lighter and includes an improved cockpit that introduces two MFDs (Multi-Function Displays), GPS navigation and a new HUD (Head-Up Display) among other modern accessories.
There is also an optional French Tequila or Russian Komar radar system designed to be installed in the nose radome to enhance air defense and anti-ship capabilities when needed. The upgrade program includes approximately 140 to 180 aircraft.
NATO codename "Flogger-J" includes MiG-27M, MiG-27L and MiG-27H. The MiG-27K adopted the similar NATO codename "Flogger-J2". All Flogger-Js have recognizable shrapnel fairings on the wing gloves as well as wing leading edge extensions.
Her ILS antenna was moved from the nose to the port side of the forward fuselage.
Despite the success of the original MiG-23 interceptor model, the MiG-27 did not achieve similar results in overseas sales. Only about 1,075 MiG-27s were in service, with production from 1970 to 1986. The MiG-27 first fought in Afghanistan during the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in the 1980s.
It was deployed to Sindander in regiment force and consisted of the MiG-27D brand. The plane was called to take action against U.S.-backed jihadist insurgents.
At the time of writing, Cuba, Iran, Kazakhstan and Sri Lanka are still the current operators of the MiG-27 Flogger family. The former operators are India (retired from the Indian Air Force since 2008), Ukraine and the USSR/Russia.
Although the last batch was withdrawn from operations in the 1990s, Russia still maintains a stockpile and reserve of whips.
Pilots affectionately refer to their MiG-27s as "platypus" due to the redesigned nose being higher than that of the MiG-23 interceptor.
- Close Air Support (CAS)
56.04 ft (17.08 m)
45.83 feet (13.97 m)
16. 40 feet (5 m)
26,257 lb (11,910 kg)
1,171 mph (1,885 km/h; 1,018 knots)
45,932 ft (14,000 m; 8.7 mi)
1,553 miles (2,500 km; 1,350 nautical miles)
12,009 m/min (39,400 ft/min)
1 x 23mm GSh-6-23M six-barreled Gatling gun.
1 x 30mm GSh-6-30 six-barrel Gatling gun.
Up to 8,800 lbs of mission-specific ammunition, over 7 hardpoints (1 centerline, 4 fuselage, and 2 wing glove stations):
Gun pods (SPPU-22 and SPPU-6 series).
Universal Throwing Bomb.
MiG-23BM "Experimental - Interceptor conversion model to the fighter-bomber form on which the MiG-27 is based.
MiG-27 (Flogger-D) - name of the basic production series; modified canopy; equipped with radio and optoelectronic equipment; armored windshield and cockpit sides; simpler engine and exhaust nozzles; additional Hardpoint; GSh-6-23M Gatling gun; fixed intake; terrain avoidance radar; modified nose radome; installed target acquisition system.
MiG-27D (Flogger-D) - nuclear strike model; equipped with PSBN-6S navigation attack system for dedicated nuclear weapons; production from 1973 to 1977; 560 copies made.
MiG-27M (Flogger-J) / "Bahadurs" - Modified Flogger-D type; removed dielectric and tuner on wing gloves; GSh-6-23M Gatling gun was later included in bottom gun pack 30mm GSh-6-30 six-barrel gun system replaced; Enhanced Electronic Countermeasures (ECM) suite; installation of new PrNK-23K Navigation Attack System for increased automation; production from 1978 to 1983; 150 copies made; Also manufactured in India as Bahadurs by HAL.